English, Latin and Greek Roots Cheat Sheet

English Latin and Greek Roots
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The words of the English language are drawn from a number of different sources: Latin, Greek, French, German, Old English, Middle English and more. Below, you can find over 200 English, Latin and Greek roots from which many English words are constructed. The knowledge of the roots below will be very helpful in learning to analyze English words and determine their meaning. This is helpful with English composition, reading comprehension, SAT scores and much more.

English Roots – Prefixes

  1. a = at, in, on, or adds force
  2. after = behind
  3. all, al = wholly
  4. be = to, cause, by
  5. for = against, not, or adds force
  6. fore = before, in front
  7. forth = forward
  8. full = completely
  9. gain = against
  10. in, im = in, into, within; sometimes intensive
  11. mis = wrong, wrongly
  12. never = not ever
  13. off = from
  14. out = beyond
  15. over = above, in excess
  16. to = at, the, this
  17. un = not, opposite act in verbs
  18. under = beneath
  19. well, wel = rightly
  20. with = against, from, back

Latin Roots – Prefixes

  1. ab, a, abs = from, away from
  2. ad, a, ac, af, ag, al, am, an, ap, ar, as, at = to, against
  3. ambi, amb, am, an = around, on all sides
  4. ante = before
  5. bene = well
  6. bi, bin, bis = two, twice
  7. circum, circu = abound, around
  8. contra, contro, counter = against
  9. cum, co, col, com, con, cor, conn = with, together, or adds force
  10. de = away, down from, or adds force
  11. dis, de, des, di, dif = apart, not, opposite act
  12. du, duo = two
  13. ex, e, ex, ef, es = out of, from
  14. extra = beyond, without
  15. in, en, i, il, im, ir = not
  16. in, am, an, em, en, il, im, ir = in, into, on, upon
  17. inter, enter, intel = among, between
  18. intro = within
  19. juxta = near to
  20. mal = badly, evil or ill
  21. ne, nec = not
  22. non = not, not one
  23. ob, o, oc, of, o, os, obs = against, upon
  24. pen = almost
  25. per, par, pel, pil = through
  26. post = after
  27. pre = before
  28. preter = past, beyond
  29. pro, prod, prof, pol, por, pur, pru = for, forth, forwards
  30. re, red = again, back, against, or opposite act
  31. retro = backward
  32. se, sed = away, from
  33. semi = half
  34. sine = without
  35. sub, sou, suc, suf, sug, sum, sup, sur, sus = under, from below
  36. subter = under
  37. super, sur = over, above, beyond
  38. trans, tran, tra, tres = beyond, across, through
  39. tri, tre = three, thrice
  40. ultra = beyond
  41. vice, vis = in place of

Greek Roots – Prefixes

  1. amphi = on both sides
  2. an, a = not
  3. ana = again, back through
  4. anti, ant = against
  5. apo, ap = from
  6. cata, cat = down
  7. di, dis = twice, two
  8. dia, di = through
  9. dys = bad, ill
  10. ec, ex = from, out of
  11. en, em = in, on
  12. epi, ep = upon
  13. eu, ev = well
  14. hemi = half
  15. hyper = over
  16. hypo, hyp = under
  17. meta, met = beyond, after, change
  18. mono, mon = alone, one
  19. para, par = beside
  20. peri = around
  21. poly = many
  22. pro = before
  23. pseudo = false
  24. syn, syl, sym, sys, sy = with

English Roots – Suffixes

  1. ar = one who (noun)
  2. ard = one who (noun)
  3. dom = state of being; domain of (noun)
  4. ed, d, t = past tense and past participle ending (verb)
  5. el = that which or by which (noun)
  6. en = made of (adj); to make (verb); little (noun)
  7. er = one who; that which (noun)
  8. er = more; comparative (adj)
  9. est = mostl superlative (adj)
  10. ful = full of, causing (adj)
  11. head, hood = state or quality of being (noun)
  12. ie, y = little (noun)
  13. ing = the act (noun); continuing (verb, adj)
  14. ish = somewhat, like (adj); to make (verb)
  15. kin = little (noun)
  16. le = denotes frequent action (verb)
  17. le = that which (noun)
  18. less = without (a)
  19. let = little (noun)
  20. ling = little
  21. ly, y = like, manner
  22. ness = state or quality of being
  23. ock = little (noun)
  24. or = one who, that which (noun)
  25. ow = to make (verb)
  26. ow = by which (noun)
  27. s, es = plural ending of nouns (noun); 3rd pl. ending of verbs (verb)
  28. ʼs, sʼ = denotes the possessive case (noun)
  29. ship = state of; office of (noun)
  30. some = full of, causing (adj)
  31. st = state of being (noun)
  32. ster = one who (noun)
  33. th, t = state of being (noun)
  34. ward, wards = direction of (adverd)
  35. wise = manner (adverb)
  36. y = see ie (noun)
  37. y = full of, having (adj)
  38. y = see ly (adj, adverb)

Latin Roots – Suffixes

  1. able, abil, ble, bl = abl to be, fit to be, causing (adj)
  2. aceous, acious = having the quality of, full of (adj)
  3. acy = state or quality of being (noun)
  4. ible, ibil, ibl, bil, bl = abl to be, fit to be, causing (adj)
  5. ad = (noun)
  6. age = state of being; act of that which; a collection of (noun)
  7. al, el, l = pertaining to the act of (noun, ad)
  8. an, ain, ane, ean, ian = pertaining to; one who
  9. ance, ancy, anc = state of being; act of
  10. and, end = to be, about to be, should be, -ing (noun)
  11. ante, ant = before, in front of
  12. ar = pertaining to
  13. ary, ar, ari = belonging to; one who; place where
  14. at, it = passive participle ending; ending of Latin noun stem (noun, verb)
  15. ate, at = having; one who; to make (noun, adj, verb)
  16. ble = see able (adj)
  17. bulum, bule, ble, bul = place; that which or by which (noun)
  18. culum, cule, cle, cher, cul = place; that which or by which (noun)
  19. ce = see acy
  20. cle, cel, cule, cul = little
  21. cy = see acy
  22. ee = one to whom (noun)
  23. el, eel = see al
  24. ence, ency, enc = state of being (noun)
  25. ens = of, belonging to (noun)
  26. ent = one who; that which; being or ing (noun, adj)
  27. er, eer, ier, r = one who (noun)
  28. er, eer = frequentative or causative (verb)
  29. ern = of, belonging to (adj)
  30. ery, ry, er = place where; state of beingl collection; art of (noun)
  31. esc = to grow or become (verb)
  32. ess = denotes female agent (noun)
  33. esque = somewhat like (adj)
  34. est = of, belonging to (adj)
  35. estr = of, belonging to (adj)
  36. ette, et = little
  37. ey = see y
  38. ible = see able
  39. ic, ical = pertaining to; made of (adj); one who (noun)
  40. ice = state or quality of being; thing that (noun)
  41. id = quality, pertaining to (adj)
  42. ier = see eer
  43. ile, il = able to be; relating to (adj)
  44. ine, in = belonging to (adj); noun ending also
  45. ion = act of; state of being; that which (noun)
  46. ique = belonging to (adj)
  47. ish = see esc
  48. ite = one who; being (noun, adj)
  49. ity, ty = state or quality of being (noun)
  50. ive, iv = one who; that which (noun);having power or quality (adj)
  51. ix = denotes a female (noun)
  52. ix = that which (noun)
  53. ize, ise, iz, is = to make, to give (verb)
  54. le, l = frequentative (verb)
  55. le, l = see al, el (noun, adj)
  56. lence = abundance of (noun)
  57. lent = abnounding in (adj)
  58. men = that acted upon (noun)
  59. ment = state of being; act of; that which
  60. mony, moni = state of being; that which; that derived from
  61. ocr = pertaining to (adj, noun)
  62. on, oon, ion = one who (noun)
  63. or = one who; that which (noun)
  64. or, our = state or quality of being; place where (noun)
  65. ory, ori = relating to; place where; thing which (adj, noun)
  66. ose, ous, os = full of, having (adj)
  67. ot = one who (noun)
  68. r = one who (noun)
  69. rix = denotes female agent (noun)
  70. ry = see ery
  71. sion, son = see ion
  72. time = belonging to (adj)
  73. tion = see ion
  74. tude, tud, ude = state of being (noun)
  75. ty = see ity
  76. ul = prone to (adj)
  77. ule, ul = little (noun)
  78. ure, ur = state or act of; that which (noun)
  79. urn = belong to (adj)
  80. y, i = state of being, that which (noun)

Greek Roots – Suffixes

  1. ac = pertaining to (adj)
  2. et = one who (noun)
  3. ic, ical = pertaining to; made of (adj); one who (n)
  4. ic, ics = science of (noun)
  5. ise, ize – to make; to give (verb)
  6. ism = state of being; doctrine (noun)
  7. ist = one who (noun)
  8. y = state of being (noun)

This list provides you with a great start in the study of English Latin and Greek Roots. The knowledge of these 200 roots will help you to decode thousands of English words.

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God bless your studies,
William C. Michael, Headmaster
Classical Liberal Arts Academy