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Things are said to be homonymous of which the name is common, but the definition of essence according to the name is different. Thus man and the picture of a man, are each of them said to be an “animal”. For of tl1ese, the name alone is common, but the reason of essence acccording to the name is different. Thus if any one explains in what the being an animal in each of these consists, he will assign the peculiar definition of each.
But those things are said to be synonymous of which the name is common, and the reason (i.e. the definition and description) of essence according to the name is the same. Thus man is said to be an animal, and also an ox, for each of these is called by the common name “animal”—and the reason of essence is the same. Thus, if any one gives the reason of each, and explains in what the being an animal in each of these consists, he will assign the same reason.
And those things are called paronymous which have their appellation according to name, from something, yet so as to differ in case. Thus, a grammarian is denominated from grammar, and a valiant man from valour.