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Latin Grammar I, Lesson 08. Irregular Comparison

To complete this lesson, complete the following tasks:

  1. Study the lesson below for mastery.
  2. Memorize all vocabulary in bold print.
  3. Complete the lesson Assessment.

Lesson

In the last lesson, we learned how comparative and superlative nouns are normally formed in Latin.  Not all nouns, however, following these general rules.  In this lesson, we will learn a number of adjective nouns that form comparison irregularly or imperfectly.  As some of these are very common, they should be kept handy for reference.

I.  Irregular Comparison

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
bonus, -a, -um
(good)
hic & haec melior, hoc melius
(better)
optimus, -a, -um
(best)
malus, -a, -um
(evil)
hic & haec peior, hoc peius
(worse)
pessimus, -a, -um
(worst)
magnus, -a, -um
(great)
hic & haec major, hoc majus
(greater)
maximus, -a, -um
(greatest)
parvus, -a, -um
(small)
hic & haec minor, hoc minus
(smaller)
minimus, -a, -um
(smallest)
multus, -a, -um
(many)
hic, haec & hoc plus, pluris
(more)
plurimus, -a, -um
(most)
vetus, veteris
(old)
hic & haec veterior, hoc veterius
(older)
veterrimus, -a, -um
(oldest)
deter, -a, -um
(poor)
hic & haec deterior, hoc deterius
(worse)
deterrimus, -a, -um
(worst)
nequam
(wicked)
hic & haec nequior, hoc nequius
(more wicked)
nequissimus, -a, -um
(most wicked)
citra
(near)
hic & haec citerior, hoc citerius
(nearer)
citimus, -a, -um
(next to us)
intra
(within)
hic & haec interior, hoc interius
(more inward)
intimus, -a, -um
(most inward)
infra
(beneath)
hic & haec inferior, hoc inferius
(lower)
infimus, -a, -um
(lowest)
extra
(outside)
hic & haec exterior, hoc exterius
(further out)
extimus, -a, -um  or
extremus, -a, -um
(outermost)
supra
(above)
hic & haec superior, hoc superius
(higher)
supremus, -a, -um or
summus, -a, -um
(highest)
post
(after)
hic & haec posterior, hoc posterius
(latter)
postremus, -a, -um
(last)
ultra
(beyond)
hic & haec ulterior, hoc ulterius
(furthermore)
ultimus, -a, -um
(furthermost)
prope
(near)
hic & haec proprior, hoc proprius
(nearer)
proximus, -a, -um
(nearest)
pridem
(late)
hic & haec prior, hoc prius
(former)
primus, -a, ium
(first)
diu
(long [time])
hic & haec diutior, hoc diutius
(longer [time])
diutissimus, -a, -um
(longest [time])
saepe
(often)
saepius
(more often)
saepissime
(most often)

 

II.  Imperfect Comparison

The following are called imperfect comparisons because they do not all have all three forms (positive, comparative, superlative).

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
inclytus, -a, -um
(glorious)
inclytissimus, -a, -um  
(most glorious)
meritus, -a, -um
(deserved)
meritissimus, -a, -um
(most deserved)
 opimus, -a, -um
(fat)
hic & haec opimior, hoc opimius
(more fat)
sinister, sinistra, -um
(unlucky)
hic & haec sinisterior, hoc sinisterius
(more unlucky)
hic & haec ocyor, hoc ocyus
(more swift)
ocyssimus, -a, -um
(most swift)
novus, -a, -um (new)novissimus, -a, -um
(newest/last)
hic & haec juvenis
(young  man);
hic & haec junior, hoc junius
(younger)
hic & haec adolescens
(youth)
hic & haec adolescentior, hoc adolescentius
(more youthful)
hic & haec potior, hoc potius
(better)
potissimus, -a, -um
(best)
ante (before)hic & haec anterior, hoc anterius
(former)
longinquus, -a, -um
(far off)
hic & haec longinquior, hoc longinquius
(further off)
nuper (recently)nuperrimus, -a, -um
(most recently)
paene (nearly)paenissimus, -a, -um
(most nearly)

 

Assessment

Latin Grammar I, Lesson 08 Exam