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Latin Grammar I, Lesson 01. Of the Latin Letters

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  1. Study the lesson for mastery.
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  3. Complete all memory work.
  4. Complete the lesson exam.


Welcome to Latin Grammar I in the Classical Liberal Arts Academy.  In this course we will study the Orthography and Etymology of the Latin language–that means the letters and forms of the words speech of the language.

Unlike English, learning the Latin letters and their sounds is very simple.  In classical Latin, every letter represents one sound only.  In ecclesiastical Latin, there are a few additional lessons to be learned, but nothing difficult.  We will study Rev. Alvarez’s rules and keep this as simple as possible.  It is strongly recommended that you read Latin Grammar lessons slowly, using CLASSICAL Latin pronunciation (C and G are always hard, diphthongs are pronounced naturally, making the sounds of both vowels.).

1. Literae quibus utuntur Latini sunt tres et viginti: A, Be, Ce, De, E, eF, Ge; Ha, I, Kappa, eL, eM, eN, O, Pe; Qu, eR, eS, Te, U, iX; Ypsilon, Zeta.
(The) letters which used (the) Latins are three and twenty.

2. Literae dividuntur in vocales et consonantes.
(The) letters are divided into vowels and consonants.

3. Vocales sunt sex:  AEIOUY; quarum ultima tantum in dictionibus Graecis locum habet, ut: HieronymusDionysius.
(The) vowels are six:  A, E, I, O, U, Y; of which (the) last only in words Greek (a) place has, as:  HieronymusDionysius.

4. Ceterae appellantur consonantes, quod vocalibus junctae simul sonent.
(The) remaining (letters) are called consonants, because with vowels joined together with they make a sound.

5. Syllaba fit ex literis una vel pluribus, ut: a-le-asarsforstrans.
(A) syllable is made out of letters, one or more, as:  a-le-asarsforstrans.

6. Syllaba quae fit ex duabus vocalibus vocatur diphthongus.
(A) syllavble which is made out of two vowels is called (a) diphthong.

7. Diphtbongi sunt sex: AE, AU, EI, EU, OE, YI, ut: praemiumaurumheiEuropapoenaharpyia.
(The) diphthongs are six:  AE, AU, EI, EU, OE, YI, as:  praemiumaurumheiEuropapoenaharpyia.

8. Dictio fit e syllabis, ut: aleas;  interdum fit ex una syllaba, ut mors.
(A) word is made out of syllables, as: aleas; sometimes (it) is made out of one syllable, as mors.

9. Oratio fit ex dictionibus, ut: Aleas fugeMortem meditare.
Speech is made out of words, as:  Aleas fugeMortem meditare.

Memory Work

Memorize each of the rules in bold print in the lesson above, and know its English translation.


Latin Grammar I, Lesson 01 Exam