Home » Curriculum » Trivium » TRV-111 Latin Reading I » Latin Reading I, Lesson 04. John 1:16-20

Latin Reading I, Lesson 04. John 1:16-20

To complete this lesson, complete the following tasks:

1. Study the lesson below, carefully and completely.
2. Read the instructions for translation exercises.
3. Complete translation exercises.
4. Memorize all lesson vocabulary.
5. Work to earn a perfect score on your lesson exam.

Lesson

In our last lesson, we read of the Incarnation–the famous words, “Verbum caro factum est.”. We read John’s adoration, “Vidimus gloriam eius”. In these next verses, John explains the differences between the Old (Mosaic) and New (Christian) covenants, making a statement that seems strange: “Deum nemo vidit umquam.” This means “No one has ever seen God.” What about Moses? Didn’t Moses see God “face-to-face” on the mountain? Apparently not as the Son has seen the Father, and the Son has come to make him known to us more clearly than Moses ever could have. Lastly, we return to the narrative of the ministry of John the Baptist, as he faces the envious questioning of the priests and Levites who were sent from Jerusalem to find about what all the commotion was out in the desert.

16 Et de plenitudine ejus nos omnes accepimus, et gratiam pro gratia: 17 quia lex per Moysen data est, gratia et veritas per Jesum Christum facta est. 18 Deum nemo vidit umquam: unigenitus filius, qui est in sinu patris, ipse enarravit. 19 Et hoc est testimonium Joannis, quando miserunt Judaei ab Jerosolymis sacerdotes et Levitas ad eum ut interrogarent eum: “Tu quis es?” 20 Et confessus est, et non negavit, et confessus est quia “Non sum ego Christus.”

Exposition

Study the Exposition below until you know the translation of every word in the Latin text and can complete the translation from memory.  The part of speech is given for each word, which should be studied but not memorized.

16 Et de plenitudine ejus nos omnes accepimus, et gratiam pro gratia:

de: preposition + abl., “from”
plenitudine: substantive noun, “fullness”
nos: pronoun, “we”
accepimus: verb, “we have received”
gratiam: substantive noun, “grace”
pro: preposition + abl., “for”
gratia: substantive noun, “grace”

Translation: And from fullness his we all have received, and grace for grace.

17 quia lex per Moysen data est, gratia et veritas per Jesum Christum facta est.

quia: conjunction, “because”
lex: substantive noun, nom./sing./fem., “law”
per: preposition + acc., “through”
Moysen: substantive, “Moses”
data est: verb, “was given”
veritas: substantive noun, “truth”
facta est: verb, “was made”

Translation: Because (the) law through Moses was given, grace and truth through Jesus Christ was made.

Note:  “Grace and truth was made” sounds awkward, but it is possible in Latin to use a singular verb with a plural subject.  We will learn more about this in Latin Grammar II.

18 Deum nemo vidit umquam: unigenitus filius, qui est in sinu patris, ipse enarravit.

nemo: substantive noun, nom./sing./com., “no one”
vidit: verb, 3rd/sing./perf./act./ind., “has seen”
umquam: adverb, “ever”
unigenitus: substantive noun, nom./sing./masc., “only-begotten”
filius: substantive noun, nom./sing./masc., “son”
qui: pronoun, nom./sing./masc., “who”
sinu: substantive noun, abl./sing./masc., “bosom”
patris: substantive noun, gen./sing./masc., “of the father”
ipse: pronoun, nom./sing./masc., “he”
enarravit: verb, 3rd/sing./perf./act./ind., “has explained”

Translation: God no one has seen ever: (the) only-begotten son, who is in (the) bosom of (the) father, he has explained (him).

19 Et hoc est testimonium Joannis, quando miserunt Judaei ab Jerosolymis sacerdotes et Levitas ad eum ut interrogarent eum: ‘Tu quis es?’

hoc: pronoun, nom./sing./neut., “this”
Joannis: substantive noun, gen./sing./masc., “of John”
quando: conjunction, “when”
miserunt: verb, 3rd/plur./perf./act./ind., “sent”
Judaei: substantive noun, nom./plur./masc., “Jews”
ab: preposition + abl., “from”
Jerosolymis: substantive noun, abl./sing./masc., “Jerusalem”
sacerdotes: substantive noun, acc./plur./masc., “priests”
Levitas: substantive noun, acc./plur./masc., “Levites”
ad: preposition + acc., “to”
ut: conjunction, “so that”
interrogarent: verb, 3rd/plur./imperf./act./subj., “they might ask”
tu: pronoun, nom./sing./masc., “you”
quis: pronoun, nom./sing./masc., “who?”
es: verb, 2nd/sing./pres./act./ind., “are”

Translation: And this is (the) testimony of John, when sent (the) Jews from Jerusalem priests and Levites to him that they might ask him, “Who are you?”

20 Et confessus est, et non negavit, et confessus est quia ‘Non sum ego Christus. ‘

confessus est: verb, 3rd/sing./perf./pass./ind., “he confessed”
negavit: verb, 3rd/sing./perf./act./ind., “did deny”
quia: conjunction, “that”
sum: verb, 1st/sing./pres./act./ind., “am”
ego: pronoun, nom./sing./masc., “I”
Christus: substantive noun, nom./sing./masc., “Christ”

Translation: And he confessed, and not did deny, and confessed that ‘Not am I Christ.

Exercises

Latin to English Translation Exercises (Restricted)
English to Latin Translation Exercises (Restricted)

Exam

Latin Reading I, Lesson 04 Exam