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Elementary Grammar, Lesson 11. Elements of a Sentence

To complete this lesson, complete the following tasks:

  1. Study the lesson for mastery.
  2. Complete the Memory Work
  3. Complete the lesson exercises.
  4. Complete the lesson assessment.

Lesson

In the sentence, “Chalk is white,” chalk is called the Subject, for it is that about which something is said, or affirmed.

  • The Subject of a proposition is that of which something is affirmed.

“White” is called the Predicate, for it is that which is affirmed of the subject chalk.

  • The Predicate of a proposition is that which is affirmed of the subject.

“Is” is called the Copula, for it is used to join the predicate to the subject, and the word copula means a link. The copula also affirms that the predicate belongs to the subject. It is sometimes a group of words; as, “will be”, “shall have been”, etc.

  • The Copula is a word, or group of words, used to join a predicate to a subject, and to make an assertion.

Consider the following discussion: In the sentence, “Ice is cold,” what is the subject? The subject is “Ice.” Why? Because it is that of which something is affirmed. What is the predicate? The predicate is “Cold.” Why? Because it is that which is affirmed of the subject. What is the copula? The copula is “Is.” Why? Because it is the word used to assert the predicate cold of the subject ice. Why is it called the “copula”? Because it links or joins the predicate to the subject.

Memory Work

  • Memorize all definitions in bold print and highlighted above.

Exam

  • Elementary Grammar, Lesson 11 Exam