Latin Grammar I, Lesson 29. Of Pronouns

To complete the objectives of this lesson, complete the following tasks:

  1. Read the lesson carefully and completely.
  2. Study the rules for mastery.
  3. Complete the lesson assessment.


I. Pronomen est quod loco nominis positum certam finitamque personam vel rem

Translation: A Pronoun is that which in the place of a noun place a certain and finite person or thing

II. Pronomina partim sunt primitiva partim derivativa seu potius derivata.

Translation: Pronouns partly are primitive partly derivative or rather derived.

III. Primitiva sive primigenia dicuntur quae prima sunt et a se orta, ut ego, tu, sui, hic, iste, ille, ipse, is.

Translation: Primitive or original they are called which first are and from themselves arisen, as ego (I), tu
(you), sui (his own), hic (this), iste (that), ille (that), ipse (himself), is (he).

IV. Derivativa vel potius derivata sunt, quae ex aliis oriuntur ut meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, nostras, vestras.

Translation: Derivative or rather derived they are, which from others arise, as meus (my), tuus (your),
suus (his own), noster (our), vester (your), nostras (our), vestras (your).

V. Demonstrativa sunt, quae rem demonstrant, ut ego, tu, hic, iste, ille, ipse, is.

Translation: Demonstratives they are, which a thing show, as ego (I), tu (you), hic (this), ille (that), ipse
(himself), is (he).

VI. Horum quinque–hic, iste, ille, ipse, is, et ex eo compositum idem–relativa dicuntur cum rem antecedentem in memoriam reducunt, ut Virgilius carmina composuit, idemque ipse ea cecinit.

Translation: Of these, five—hic, iste, ille, ipse, is and from it composed idem—relatives are called when a thing preceding to memory reduce, as “Virgil songs composed, and the same himself them sang.”

VII. Possessiva sunt quae possessionem significant, ut meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester.

Translation: Possessive (pronouns) they are, which possession signify, as meus (my), tuus (your), suus
(his own), noster (our), vester (your).

VIII. Gentilia sive patria sunt, quae non solum gentem vel patriam sed etiam partes sectamve adsignificant, ut nostras, vestras.

Translation: Gentile or patrial (pronouns) they are, which not only a nation or country but also parts or a
sect signify, as nostras (our), vestras (your).

IX. Reciproca duo sunt, unum primitivum nimirum sui, alterum derivativum seu derivatum nempe suus.

Translation: Reciprocal (pronouns) two there are, one primitive for certain sui (his own), the other
derivative or derived without doubt suus (his own).

Source: Alvarez, Emmanuel. Institutio Grammatica. Translated by William C. Michael (2022)

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