Aristotle, Topics. Book II, Chapter 05

Again, it is also a sophistical place, to bring the opponent to that against which we abound with arguments. But this will sometimes, indeed, be necessary, sometimes will appear to be necessary, and sometimes will neither appear to be, nor will be necessary. It is necessary, therefore, when he who … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book II, Chapter 04

The mutation also into a name more known is useful; as, for instance, the clear, instead of the accurate, in opinion; and the love of employment instead of being engaged in various occupations. For when that which is asserted becomes more known, the thesis may be more easily opposed. This … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book II, Chapter 03

Again, if anything should be multifariously predicated, but it is posited as inherent, or as not inherent, one of those things which are multifariously predicated must be proved, if both cannot be proved. But this place is to be used in things which are latent. For if it is not … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book II, Chapter 02

One place, therefore, is to consider whether that which is inherent according to some other mode, is to be assumed as an accident. But this error especially takes place about genera. As, if someone should say, that it happens to whiteness to be a color; for color is not an … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book II, Chapter 01

Of problems some are universal, but others partial. The universal, therefore, are such as that “All pleasure is good.”, and “No pleasure is good.”. But the partial are such as, “A certain pleasure is good.”, and “A certain pleasure is not good.”. The things, however, which are common to both … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book I, Chapter 18

It is also useful for the purpose of perspicuity, to consider in how many ways a thing may be predicated. For anyone will more easily understand what he admits, when it is explained in how many ways a thing is predicated. It likewise contributes to the constructions of syllogisms against … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book I, Chapter 17

But similitude is to be considered in those things which are indifferent genera thus; as one thing is to a certain other thing, so is one thing to another. Thus, for instance, as science is to the object of science, so is sense to that which is sensible. Likewise, as … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book I, Chapter 16

The differences also in genera themselves with respect to each other, must be surveyed; as, for instance, what difference there is between justice and fortitude, and between prudence and temperance; for all these are from the same genus, virtue. This must also be surveyed in different genera, which do not … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book I, Chapter 15

But in how many ways a thing may be predicated must be so discussed, that we must not only endeavor to explain such things as are predicated in a different manner, but also the reasons of them. Thus, for instance, it should not only be explained, that in one way, … Read more

Aristotle, Topics. Book I, Chapter 14

Propositions, therefore, are to be selected in as many ways, as there are modes in the definition of a proposition; so that we may select, either the opinions of all men, or of most, or of wise men; and of these, either of all, or of most, or of the … Read more