Summa Theologica Part I, Question 14. The Knowledge of God

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Having considered what belongs to the divine substance, we have now to treat of God’s operation. And since one kind of operation is immanent, and another kind of operation proceeds to the exterior effect, we treat first of knowledge and of will (for understanding abides in the intelligent agent, and will is in the one who wills); and afterwards of the power of God, the principle of the divine operation as proceeding to the exterior effect. Now because to understand is a kind of life, after treating of the divine knowledge, we consider the divine life. And as knowledge concerns … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 13. The Names of God

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After the consideration of those things which belong to the divine knowledge, we now proceed to the consideration of the divine names. For everything is named by us according to our knowledge of it. Under this head, there are twelve points for inquiry: Article 1. Whether a Name Can Be Given to God? Objection 1: It seems that no name can be given to God. For Dionysius says (Div. Nom. i) that, “Of Him there is neither name, nor can one be found of Him;” and it is written: “What is His name, and what is the name of His … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 12. How God is Known by Us

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As hitherto we have considered God as He is in Himself, we now go on to consider in what manner He is in the knowledge of creatures; concerning which there are thirteen points of inquiry: Article 1. Whether Any Created Intellect Can See the Essence of God? Objection 1: It seems that no created intellect can see the essence of God. For Chrysostom (Hom. xiv. in Joan.) commenting on John 1:18, “No man hath seen God at any time,” says: “Not prophets only, but neither angels nor archangels have seen God. For how can a creature see what is increatable?” … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 11. On the Unity of God

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After the foregoing, we consider the divine unity; concerning which there are four points of inquiry: Article 1. Whether “One” Adds Anything to “Being”? Objection 1: It seems that “one” adds something to “being.” For everything is in a determinate genus by addition to being, which penetrates all genera. But “one” is a determinate genus, for it is the principle of number, which is a species of quantity. Therefore “one” adds something to “being.” Obj. 2: Further, what divides a thing common to all, is an addition to it. But “being” is divided by “one” and by “many.” Therefore “one” … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 10. On the Eternity of God

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We must now consider the eternity of God, concerning which arise six points of inquiry. Article 1. Whether This Is a Good Definition of Eternity, “The Simultaneously Whole and Perfect Possession of Interminable Life”? Objection 1: It seems that the definition of eternity given by Boethius (De Consol. v) is not a good one: “Eternity is the simultaneously-whole and perfect possession of interminable life.” For the word “interminable” is a negative one. But negation only belongs to what is defective, and this does not belong to eternity. Therefore in the definition of eternity the word “interminable” ought not to be … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 9. On the Immutability of God

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We next consider God’s immutability, and His eternity following on His immutability. On the immutability of God there are two points of inquiry: Article 1. Whether God is altogether immutable? Objection 1: It seems that God is not altogether immutable. For whatever moves itself is in some way mutable. But, as Augustine says (Gen. ad lit, viii, 20), “The Creator Spirit moves Himself neither by time, nor by place.” Therefore God is in some way mutable. Obj. 2: Further, it is said of Wisdom, that “it is more mobile than all things active [Vulg. ‘mobilior’]” (Wis. 7:24). But God is … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 8. On the Existence of God in Things

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Since it evidently belongs to the infinite to be present everywhere, and in all things, we now consider whether this belongs to God; and concerning this there arise four points of inquiry. Article 1. Whether God Is in All Things? Objection 1: It seems that God is not in all things. For what is above all things is not in all things. But God is above all, according to the Psalm (Ps. 112:4), “The Lord is high above all nations,” etc. Therefore God is not in all things. Obj. 2: Further, what is in anything is thereby contained. Now God … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 7. On the Infinity of God

St. Thomas Aquinas

After considering the divine perfection we must consider the divine infinity, and God’s existence in things: for God is everywhere, and in all things, inasmuch as He is boundless and infinite. Concerning the first, there are four points of inquiry. Article 1. Whether God Is Infinite? Objection 1: It seems that God is not infinite. For everything infinite is imperfect, as the Philosopher says; because it has parts and matter, as is said in Phys. iii. But God is most perfect; therefore He is not infinite. Obj. 2: Further, according to the Philosopher (Phys. i), finite and infinite belong to … Continue

Summa Theologica Part I, Question 6. On the Goodness of God

St. Thomas Aquinas

Article 1. Whether God is good? Objection 1: It seems that to be good does not belong to God. For goodness consists in mode, species and order. But these do not seem to belong to God; since God is immense and is not ordered to anything else. Therefore to be good does not belong to God. Obj. 2: Further, the good is what all things desire. But all things do not desire God, because all things do not know Him; and nothing is desired unless it is known. Therefore to be good does not belong to God. On the contrary, … Continue