Whether in Holy Scripture a Word may have Several Senses? (ST 1.1.10)

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Whether in Holy Scripture a Word may have Several Senses? Objection 1 It seems that in Holy Writ a word cannot have several senses, historical or literal, allegorical, tropological or moral, and anagogical. For many different senses in one text produce confusion and deception and destroy all force of argument. Hence no argument, but only fallacies, can be deduced from a multiplicity of propositions. But Holy Writ ought to be able to state the truth without any fallacy. Therefore in it there cannot be several senses to a word. Objection 2 Further, Augustine says (De util. cred. iii) that “the … Continue

Whether Holy Scripture Should Use Metaphors? (ST 1.1.9)

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Whether Holy Scripture Should Use Metaphors? Objection 1 It seems that Holy Scripture should not use metaphors. For that which is proper to the lowest science seems not to befit this science, which holds the highest place of all. But to proceed by the aid of various similitudes and figures is proper to poetry, the least of all the sciences. Therefore it is not fitting that this science should make use of such similitudes. Objection 2 Further, this doctrine seems to be intended to make truth clear. Hence a reward is held out to those who manifest it: “They that … Continue

Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Matter of Argument? (ST 1.1.8)

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Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Matter of Argument? Objection 1 It seems this doctrine is not a matter of argument. For Ambrose says (De Fide 1): “Put arguments aside where faith is sought.” But in this doctrine, faith especially is sought: “But these things are written that you may believe” (John 20:31). Therefore sacred doctrine is not a matter of argument. Objection 2 Further, if it is a matter of argument, the argument is either from authority or from reason. If it is from authority, it seems unbefitting its dignity, for the proof from authority is the weakest form of … Continue

Whether God Is the Object of the Science of Sacred Doctrine? (ST 1.1.7)

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Whether God Is the Object of the Science of Sacred Doctrine? Objection 1 It seems that God is not the object of this science. For in every science, the nature of its object is presupposed. But this science cannot presuppose the essence of God, for Damascene says (De Fide Orth. i, iv): “It is impossible to define the essence of God.” Therefore God is not the object of this science. Objection 2 Further, whatever conclusions are reached in any science must be comprehended under the object of the science. But in Holy Writ we reach conclusions not only concerning God, … Continue

Whether Sacred Doctrine is the Same as Wisdom? (ST 1.1.6)

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Whether Sacred Doctrine is the Same as Wisdom? Objection 1 It seems that this doctrine is not the same as wisdom. For no doctrine which borrows its principles is worthy of the name of wisdom; seeing that the wise man directs, and is not directed (Metaph. i). But this doctrine borrows its principles. Therefore this science is not wisdom. Objection 2 Further, it is a part of wisdom to prove the principles of other sciences. Hence it is called the chief of sciences, as is clear in Ethic. vi. But this doctrine does not prove the principles of other sciences. … Continue

Whether Sacred Doctrine Is Nobler than Other Sciences? (ST 1.1.5)

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Whether Sacred Doctrine Is Nobler than Other Sciences? Objection 1 It seems that sacred doctrine is not nobler than other sciences; for the nobility of a science depends on the certitude it establishes. But other sciences, the principles of which cannot be doubted, seem to be more certain than sacred doctrine; for its principles–namely, articles of faith–can be doubted. Therefore other sciences seem to be nobler. Objection 2 Further, it is the sign of a lower science to depend upon a higher; as music depends on arithmetic. But sacred doctrine does in a sense depend upon philosophical sciences; for Jerome … Continue

Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Practical Science? (ST 1.1.4)

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Whether Sacred Doctrine Is a Practical Science? Objection 1 It seems that sacred doctrine is a practical science; for a practical science is that which ends in action according to the Philosopher (Metaph. ii). But sacred doctrine is ordained to action: “Be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only” (James 1:22). Therefore sacred doctrine is a practical science. Objection 2 Further, sacred doctrine is divided into the Old and the New Law. But law implies a moral science which is a practical science. Therefore sacred doctrine is a practical science. On the Contrary Every practical science is concerned … Continue

Whether Sacred Doctrine is One Science? (ST 1.1.3)

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Whether Sacred Doctrine Is One Science? Objection 1 It seems that sacred doctrine is not one science; for according to the Philosopher (Poster. i) “that science is one which treats only of one class of subjects.” But the creator and the creature, both of whom are treated of in sacred doctrine, cannot be grouped together under one class of subjects. Therefore sacred doctrine is not one science. Objection 2 Further, in sacred doctrine we treat of angels, corporeal creatures and human morality. But these belong to separate philosophical sciences. Therefore sacred doctrine cannot be one science. On the Contrary Holy … Continue

Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Science? (ST 1.1.2)

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Whether Sacred Doctrine Is a Science? Objection 1 It seems that sacred doctrine is not a science. For every science proceeds from self-evident principles. But sacred doctrine proceeds from articles of faith which are not self-evident, since their truth is not admitted by all: “For all men have not faith” (2 Thess. 3:2). Therefore sacred doctrine is not a science. Objection 2 Further, no science deals with individual facts. But this sacred science treats of individual facts, such as the deeds of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and such like. Therefore, sacred doctrine is not a science. On the Contrary Augustine … Continue